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UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT DF THE INTERIOR 
DFFIDEQF INDIAN AFFAIRS - - WASHINGTON, D.C. 




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INDI4IS kT WORK 

CONTENTS OF THE ISSUE OF lEHRUAJlY 1938 

VolTxne V Nmter 6 

Page 

Edi torial John Collier 1 

Ihe San Carlos Apache Cattle Sale And 

The ;7ork Behind It Claude C. Cornwall 5 

The Complicated Question Of Indian Service 

Quarters ,... S. W. Crosthwait 8 

Changes Of Assignment 13 

Recent Elections On Trital Constitutions 13 

Series Of Extension And Credit Meetings Held 

At Washington 14 

Visitors At The Washington Office 14 

a? uses f Earth A. B. Lee 15 

Walapai Cattle Sales 19 

Mapping Program In Five Civilized Trihes Area 20 

Irrigation Helps Gardens At Kyle, South Dakota 21 

Co tton And Corn ffer Erosion Hazard Tb Soil 21 

Ancient Records On Stone Julian H. Steward 23 

Tularosa Canyon Erik W. Allstrom 28 

Marketing Cooperatives Ibr Indians Edward Hub erman 32 

The Papago Indian Fair Claude C. Cornwall 35 

CCC - ID Training Leads Tb Job As Meahanic 

For Air Transportation Company Thomas Short 36 

Enrollee Draining Program At Red Lake 35 

From CCC - ID Repor ts 37 



TOODLA.NII SCEKE ON THE MNDMIMSE RESERVATION . WISCONSIN 




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VOLUME I FEBRUABY I 1935 NUnSEB. 6 

A groi?) of Indians from one of the "big tribes is now in 
Washington, and they voiced today a complaint which I here set 
down without presuming anything as to facts. 

Qhese men axe full -blood Indians, members of tribes or- 
ganized under the Reorganization Act. They assert that the Ameri- 
can custom of legislating in haste, and of legislating without due 
regard to the personal liberty of citizens, is being adopted by 
some Indian tribes. 

Just as a matter of generalization from history, I should 
expect that their complaint would be borne out by investigation. 

The tiiiie comes in the development of peoples, when na- 
tions and groups pass from cTOstomary law to ste-tute law. 

And practically every nation or grot?) which has made 
this transition, as history shows, has sooner or later plunged 
into statute -making. 



Nearly every such nation or gro'op, at one time or another, 
has plunged into the making of multiplied and axhitrary rtG.es deal- 
ing with the personal lives of its members - including their opin- 
ions and their pleasures. Itis fact is i»ritten large in the his- 
tory of England; in the history of "France; and certainly in the 
history of the ISiited States and of most of its local subdivisions. 
!Ihe history of vriiat is called "sumptuary" legislation is a long 
chapter of legislative folly. Often the multitude of laws, passed 
in haste, drop to forge tf^Jlness after a brief and ineffectiml but 
friction-breeding effort to enforce them, and are not even repealed. 
I remember once compiling the ordinances of New York City dealing 
with Sunday observances. Ihere were, as I recall, some eighty-odd 
distinct ordinances, and had they all been put into force, extreme 
chaos and paralysis woiiLd have resulted on the first day. Probably 
those laws are on the New York City books even now. 

Certainly, government has as one of its duties the regula- 
tion of human relations and of personal behavior. But the govern- 
ment which focusses its attention - particularly, the legislature 
which focusses its attention - unduly upon the mandatory regulation 
of personal lives and of pleasures, is a government which fails to 
understand its major purposes* 

Government fundamentally is a cooperative enterprise of 
social production, and a vital part of that enterprise is the clear- 
ing of the tracks so that the no n -governmental, spontaneous energies 
of people and groi:?)S may move freely along tiie human highway. 

2 



As for Indian tribes, passing rapidly in these current 
years from customary government to government \inder ordinances, 
sTirely they need to meditate the lesson of history. Ihe hig, over- 
riding prohlem of Indian tribes today is the economic one. Hb 
get more yield out of limited nafural resources; to add to the too 
limited physical assets; to obtain better trading conditions; to 
plan the economic future. Ihe tribe which falls to meet this major 
problem will fall in any subsidiary undertaking. The tribe which 
diverts its attention to questionable interferences with religious 
observance, with innocent pleasure, with innocent human relationships 
and deeply rooted harmless customs, will be the tribe ^ich loses 
the view of the main issues and loses its own future. 

In this editorial I do not give any examples, because 
then I might appear to be singling out particular cases and re- 
buking or pre-judging them. I am quite certain that a temptation 
which is universal in the political nature of mankind is not going 
to be absent from the Indians, and I leave the subject here, in its 
general terms. 





Commissioner of Indian Affairs 



GA-TTLS FBDU SAN CARLOS AGENCY, ARIZONA 




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A Fifty-Eight Mile Drive And No TTater Madness 



THE SA.N CARLOS APACHS CATTLE SALE AFP THS TORK BEHIND IT 
'^ Claude C. Cornwall, Camp Supervisor, CCC - ID 



On November 29, the Sen Carlos AT)ache Indians concluded 
their round-ups and cattle sales for the year 1937, which sent to 
market 10,209 head of fine Hereford stock, and "brought to their In- 
dian owners a return a,vera£;in^ $31.62 per head. 

This is a sharp contrast to the situation at San Carlos 
cited in a strperintendent 's report of some years ago, which re- 
ferred to "nineteen hundred hea,d of the sorriest cattle I have ever 

seen" "It is estimated tha.t seven hundred Indians are on the 

ration rolls" "All this on a reservation of a million and a 

half acres of land, vAiich these Indians scarcely use at all." 




Bidders in Conference at Anacne (Ja.ttie Sale, 1937 



This achievement is the result of fourteen years of hard 
work toward an ideal. There are many sides to the establishment 
of a cattle business: the termination of grazing permits to white 
cattlemen; the building up of herds to meet modern market demands; 
the training of Indians in the techniques of cattle management; 
and - here is where CCC work has helped - range and water develop- 
ment to make possible a maximum use of grazing resources. According 




Ar»ache Cowtoy 



to Stiperintendent James B. 
Kitch, the past four years 
have seen the most rapid 
strides in this cumuLa.tive 
program, especially the ciir- 
rent year. 

Cattle selling is a 
technical husiness these days, 
because in addition to the 
tasks of rounding up cattle 
and cutting out those which 
are to "be sold there is the 
necessary grading and cla.ss- 
ification for top price sell- 
ing. The following classes 
are required: yearling steers, 
short steers, heifers, short 



heifers, cows, two-year-old steers, three -year-old steers and stag 
hulls. 



Eighteen different sales were held. The various cattle 
associations at San Carlos are organized under the traditional 
Apache clan groups; for this reason, each cattle unit is a separate 
enterprise. Recognition of these traditional grounings has meant 
harmonious cooperation among the ca.ttle o?mers in each association. 

Eager bidders for the Sen Carlos herds this jesr came 
from all over the West: from Oklahoma, Tesa,s, Arizona, California, 
Colorado and even from Iowa. They examined the classified cattle 
groups; then each in turn suTmitted his sealed bids to the Indian 
officers of the cattle associations. The bids were tabulated, and 
if found satisfactory, award was made to the highest bidder. On 
two occasions in the spring sale, the Indians rejected all bids, 
held out and finally go t a more satisfactory price. On one occasion 
during the fall sale, all bids were rejected on a group of yearling 
steers and the Indians decided to ship to Los Angeles themselves. 
TlLis action brought them an average of $4.13 per head over the high- 
est offer at the reservation. 

The San Carlos cattle association is pretty much of a^ self- 
contained enterprise. An indication of its independence is the fact 
that issues of cattle to members of the tribe are raa.de from their 
own tribal herd. Also, a round-up fee of $5.00 per head is paid to 
the cattle association on all cattle sold, and the money thus ob- 
tained is used to operate the cattle association. 



ceo- ID ;?ork Plays Its Part 



As the San Carlos cattle enterprise developed, CCC-ID 
work was fitted in with it, in almost perfect timing. The Indians 
had just got their "biisiness Tip to the iDoint when the need of water 
development, trails and range fences for opening up great areas of 
hitherto inaccessible range "became evident. Along came CCC work 
and it came just at the low point; just at the critical time. 

CCC work has hiiilt eighty-nine reservoirs, dug three 
wells, laid fourteen miles of pipe line and developed over a hundred 
springs, adding in all nearly 200 new water holes. It has huilt 
over five hundred miles of new fence; and closed for the first time 
the reservation boundary along the Gila Rim. It has given these 
Apache Indians the opportunity to build for themselves one hundred 
and fifty miles of truck trail and another hundred miles of stock 
trail and horse-and-man trails. CCC work has opened ud new graz- 
ing areas and has made possible better distribution of the Apaches' 
stock. 

One of the CCC educational projects at SsJi Carlos has 
been to teach cooperative enterprise and to help in organizing the 
various cattle associations. 



And CCC camps have proved also to be good customers of 
Apache -oroducts. But more than all this, CCC work has brought 
new incentives, new opportunities, new knowledge and skills to 
the young men. They are .-gM,, 
saving their earnings and P^i ' 
makinf; for themselves the 
opportunity for starting 
in the cattle business - 
an enterprise which these 
Apaches are able to oper- 
ate along with the best 
of them. 

When the news 
came in the summer that 
CCC was established for 

another three years, the 99 Teariing Steers Shipped By 

comment of Victor Kindelay Saji Carlos to Los Angeles Market. 
was characteristic . He Shipping Brought a Return of $4.13 

said, "Good. Now we can per Head Over the Highest Bid at 

build some more tanks." Cattle Sale. 




THS C OMPLICATED QUSSTIOlJir OF IMDIAII SERVICE QminERS 
New Schedule Of Salary D eductions Hbr Quarters Seeks 
!Ib Remedy I nequalities 

By S. W. Crosthwait, Assistant to the Oomraissioner 



Ibr a number of years appointments to positions in the 
Indian Service were made with the understanding that quarters, fuel, 
light and other services woiild be furnished free of charge. Salary 
rates of employees at that time were fi-xpd with this consideration 
in mind. Subsequent legislation and rulings, however, changed this 
situation. 

On March 4, 1923, the President apnroved legislation pro- 
viding that all positions in the District of Columbia be classified 
and that positions involving similar duties and responsibilities 
should be placed in the same salary range. The provisions of this 
Act, which was known as the Classification Act of 1923, were later 
extended to all field positions. 

On August 1, 1925, at the instruction of the Comptroller 
General, viio had ruled that there was no legal authority for the 
furnishing of quarters, f^uel, light and other sei^ices to employees 
without making suitable deductions from their pay, a schedule for 
making deductions for quarters and other allowances considered as 
part compensation was put into effect. 



Deductions Made On Basis Of Salary 

In order to put into effect immediately the provisions of 
the Comptroller's decision, an arbitrary scale of deductions was 
adopted which provided that, generally speaking, the deductions 
made from an emuloyee's salary for quarters, fuel and other serv- 
ices furnished, would be on the basis of a certain percentage of 
his salary. The rates adopted at that time and which are still in 
effect in most jurisdictions, were as follows: 

Grades 1 and 2 $60 per annum 

Grades 3 and 4 $120 per annum 

Grades 5, 6, 7 & 8 $180 per annum 



Grade 9: 

Salary $2,000 $180 per anmjm 

Salary $2,l00 $180 per annum 

Salary $2,200 $200 per ajinum 

Salary $2, 300 $240 per anntim 

Salary $2,400 $280 per annum 

Salary $2,500 $300 per annum 

Grade 10: 

Salary $2,300 $240 per annum 

Salary $2,400 $280 per annum 

Salary $2,500 to $2,800.. $300 per annum 

Grades 11, 12, 13 & 14 $300 per annum 

Grades 15, 16 and over $400 per annum 

At the time the deductions were first put into effect, 
the Secretary authorized increase of the salaries of those involved 
so that there would not result a net reduction in the actual com- 
pensation paid to the individual. This procedure seemed fair, nar- 
ticularly when it is remembered that initially persons in the In- 
dian Service were employed with the understanding that as a part 
of their compensation they would "be fiirnished quarters, fuel, lights 
and other facilities. 

At the present time persons are employed with the under- 
standin,?: that deductions will be made firom their gross salaries for 
any services fm^nished, and their compensation is fised without re- 
gard to the locality to which they are to be assigned or the fact 
that they may be furnished quarters. There wo'uld therefore apnear 
to be no reason why the deduction made from any employee's salary 
should not be com-nensurate with the facilities which he is furnished. 
That is, the person furnished the least in quantity and ouality of 
facilities should ha.ve the smallest deduction made from his salary. 

The method of making deductions on a scale based on the 
compensation received by the employee, and thereby falling to take 
into account the kind and q\iantity of facilities f-urnished, obvious- 
ly led to many inconsistencies; for example frequently we have 
found situations where two employees were furnished similar facili- 
ties and a deduction of $25 was made from the salary of one and 
$15 from the sal;iry of the other. 

^ore Equitable A rrangement Sought, Based On Actual Services Received 

In an endeavor to develop a procedure that would eliminate 
thesp inconsistencies, there was apnointed a valuation engineer, 

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10 



who has "been compiling accurate and current data on facilities fur- 
nished to the employees at the various field units of the Indian 
Service. There has also "been appointed a committee here in the 
Washington Office to study these data and to develop a -Drocediire 
for fixing of rates consistent with the facilities furnished in 
each instance and not inconsistent with the rates for which such 
services might he procured outside of the Service. 

After careful study of the data collected hy the valtia- 
tion engineer, the committee has adopted a schedule T^ich will 
hereafter govern the changes to he made for at)artraents, cottages 
and similar accommodations furnished to em-oloyees of the Indian 
Service. This schedule is reproduced on the opDOsite page. A 
separate schedule is used in determining the rates to he charged 
persons furnished rooms in employees' clubs and similar structures. 
Hhis schedule, which is on a monthly hasis, is as follows: 

Choice room with private bath $18.00 

Choice room with semi -private bath* .... 16.50 

Choice room with community bath* 14.00 

Average room with private bath 16.00 

Average room with semi-private bath .... 14.50 

Average room with community bath 12.00 

Least desirable room T,'ith private bath . 14.00 
Least desirable room with semi- 
private bath 12.50 

Least desirable room with community 

ba,th 10.00 

Small room in dormitory or infirmary 

with urivate bath 10 .00 

Small room in dormitory or infirmary 

wi thout private bath 5.00 

• A semi -private bath is one that serves two rooms. 

A community bath is one that serves more than two rooms. 

It may be necessary to modify these schedules from time 
to time, but changes will be made only after careful consideration 
of all factors involved. 

Ded\ictions in accordance with the procedure here out- 
lined will be made as rapidly as tiie surveys can be completed by 
the valuation engineer. Ihe changes in rates at any particular 
Jurisdiction will all be made effective at one time, and as soon 
as possible after the valuation engineer completes his survey. 
When the valuation engineer reports at a jurisdiction for the 
purpose of making a survey of quarters and other services f^u?nished 



11 



to the emnloyees, he has "been instrticted to request the officer in 
charge to PX)point a committee of employees at that unit to meet 
with him after completion of the survey for the purpose of deter- 
mining the rates which should be recommended for the facilities 
furnished to the employees of that particular jurisdiction. As 
far as possible the rates must be in accordance with the schedule 
shown here but the determination of vshether the particular facili- 
ties furnished belong in the average, above-average, or below-aver- 
age class is one that must be made by the valuation engirfeer and 
the committee appointed by the superintendent. Whenever the valua- 
tion engineer and the committee can agree on the proper rate, it 
will usually be accepted by the Quarters Committee here in Washing- 
ton as the final rate. Difference between the valuation engineer 
and the committee will be settled by the Quarters Committee of the 
Washington Office. 

Heretofore no definite limitation has been placed on the 
household equipment and other items iiiiich may be furnished to em- 
ployees of the Indian Service. At an early date, it is proposed 
to issue instructions to field officers authorizing the purchase 
for use in employees' quarters of only such items as are shown in 
the following tabulation.' 

Farnitwe To Be Supplied Definitel y Listed 



Living Room ; 

Studio couch or davenport 

Overstuffed chairs (limit 2) 

Occasional chairs 

Living room table 

End or occasional table (1) 

Ottomans (one large or two small) 

R-ug (one large or two small) 

Bookcase 

Magazine rack 

Electric floor lamps (limit 2) 



Each Bedroom; 



Bed or beds 

Bed springs 

Mattress 

Pillows 

Dressing table or dresser 

Mirror 

Chairs 

Scatter rugs - (Navajo 

preferred) 
Floor or bed lamp 
Wardrobe 



Dining Room ; 



Miscellaneous; 



Dining room table 

Dining room chairs (limit 6) 

Serving table 

Buffet 

China closet or cupboard 

RTJg 



Lawn mower 

Fire extinguisher 

Window shades 

Porch Chairs (limit 2) 

Wastepaper baskets 

Vacuum cleaner 

Door mats 



12 



Ki tchen or Breakfas t Nook ; Den: 

Range Saw- buck table (limit 1) 

Ice box (mechanical) Chairs (limit 2) 

Kitchen table and chairs Rug - small 

Kitchen cabinet 1 bookcase 

Linoleum floor covering 
Breakfast-nook table 
Breskfast-nook chairs or benches 
Garbage can 

Other items which it may be desirable to furnish will be 
issued only -apon specific approval of the Washington Office. It 
will be noted that this approved list of equipment does not include 
such items as blankets, sheets, pillowcases, dishes and cooking 
utensils which have heretofore been more or less uniformly supplied 
to employees of the Indian Service. 

The equipment for rooms in employees' clubs and rooms 
furnisiipd to emoloyees Tonder similar circumstances will not be 
governed by this list. Generally speaking, rooms in employees' 
clubs will be furnished on the same basis as rooms in hotels are 
furnished, except that the Indian Service will not bear the ex- 
pense of laundering bed linens and blankets. S'Jch ejgjense will 
have to be borne by the employees assigned to rooms in clubs and 
similar structures. 



CaiNGBS OF ASSIGNMENT 

Miss Lela M. Cheney, Svapervisor of Social T7ork, is on 
leave to carry on vi^ork at the University of Chicago. Miss Etfcel 
Mae Bratton, social worker at Winnebago Agency, Nebraska, has been 
detailed to take Miss Cheney's place. 

Mr. George Barrett, formerly social worker at the Con- 
solidated Chipoewa Agency, Minnesota, has been made principal of 
the T^rangell Institute, Alaska. Mr. Barrett is himself an Alaska 
Indian of the TLingit Tribe. 



RECENT ELECTIONS ON IRIBAL CONSTITUTIONS 
Date Jurisdiction Jbr Against 

December 14 Kiowa Tribe of the Kiowa 

Agency, Oklahoma 302. . • • 348 

January 5 Pawnee Tribe of the Pawnee 

Agency, Oklahoma 197 ... 60 



13 



SERIES OF EXTENSION AND CREDIT MEETINGS HELD AT WASHIN&roN 



All of the Indian Service's credit agents and associate 
credit agents, two auditors for the credit group and five extension 
st^ervisors were called into the Washington Office for a series of 
meetings January 10 to 14. The program included general reviews of 
existing prohlems, planning for future work and discussions by work- 
ers in similar fields outside the Indian Service, including the 
Iferra Security Administration, the Farm Credit Administration and 
the Extension Branch of the Department of Agricultiire. 

Extension supervisors who attended were: Jbhn T. Mont- 
gomery and Ralph S. Bristol, Salt Lake City Office, Utah; James 
W. Kauffman, Minneapolis, Minnesota; Will R. Bolen, Oklahoma City, 
Oklahoma; and Mrs. Henrietta K. Burton. 

Credit agents and associate credit agents included: S. 
M. McKinsey, Minneapolis, Minnesota; Clyde G. Sherman, Ashland, 
Wisconsin; Charles R. Mount joy, Pierre, South Dakota; H. D. Mc- 
Cullogh, Spokane, Washington; John E. White, Salt Lake City; F. A. 
Asbury, Salt Lake City; Donald H. Wattson, Oklahoma City; Zeh Low^; 
Oklahoma City; P. J. Fitzsimmons, Phoenix, Arizona, John A. Krall, 
extension agent, Blackfeet Agency, Montana. Two auditors for the 
credit groi:^ - John Pohland of Salt Lake City and Juhel Wilson of 
Oklahoma City - also attended the meetings; and James Curiy, At- 
torney, Salt Lake City, Utah. 



VISITORS AT THE WASHINGTON OFFICE 



Visitors at the Washington Office during late Decemher 
and Januflry have included tfrs. Lucy Wilcox Adams, Director of 
Navajo Schools; James H. Finley, St^jervising Probate Attorney for 
the Five Civilized Tribes, and Dennis H. Petty, Probate Attorney 
for the Wewoka District, Five Civilized Tribes Jurisdiction; Don 
Hagerty, of the Indian Reorganization Staff; Allan Harper, of the 
Technical Cooperation - Bureau of Indian Affairs unit of the Soil 
Conservation Service; Claude M. Hirst, Superintendent of Indian 
Education for Alaska; Allan Hulsizer, Siroervisor of .Secondary Ed- 
ucation, and Richard Ti singer, Stqperintendent of Indian Schools 
(who has since gone on leave to Cornell liiiversity to work on his 
doctorate); A. C. Monahan, Coordinator for Oklahoma and Kansas, 
Ibrrest Stone, Superintendent of the Wind River Agency, Wyoming, 
who is accompanied ty Robert Friday, Chairman of the Arapaho Council 
and Gilbert Day, Shoshone Council Chairman; and Henry Talliman, 
Chairman of the Navajo Tribal Council; and Drags Wolf, Ibolish Beir 
and Arthur Mandan from the ibrt Berthold Agency in North Dakota. 

14 



HOUSES OP E ARTH 
By A. B. Lee* 

Houses of earth axe not new to Indians: a large number 
of Southwestern Indians, and whites as well, live in ado he dwell- 
ings that are cheap to huild and comfortahle to live in both win- 
ter and summer. But there is another type of earth-house, more 




HBomed Earth Construction In Process 

{Farm Sec\iri ty Administration Photograph; 

TJiomas Hibben, Architect) 



permanent even than the durable 'dobes and of wider possible range, 
that the Indian Service may, after experimentation,- encourage In- 
dians to build for themselves. And that is raimned earth, or pise 
de terre construction. 



* ( No te : This writer has published an illustrated booklet 
on "Houses Of Earth" which tells in detail how rammed earth houses 
are buil t. ) 



15 



There is nothing untried ahout rammed earth "building. 
This method is older than recorded history. Rammed earth watch- 
towers and walls erected "by Hannibal, 300 years B. C, were de- 
scribed ly Pliny the Elder 250 years later as being Intact and 
in good condition. 

The earliest known example of the use of rammed earth in 
this CO tin try is in St. Augustine, Horida, where there is a house 
b\iilt of it in 1555 - still standing. Also the French were known 
to have used it in early days in South Carolina. 

What is rammed earth construction? It is dirt, plain 
dirt, laid -op between wooden forms, then thoroughly pounded for 
compactness and allowed to dry. Among its advantages are the 
facts that dirt costs nothing to bvy, nothing to transport and 
that the construction can be carried out ty unskilled labor. Rammed 
earth walls are permanent, fire-proof and increasingly strong witii 
the passing years; they are dry, vermin-proof and afford nat\iral 
insulation against heat and cold- When a group of buildings is 
erected in seauence, the wooden forms may be used again and again. 
Pi 8^ work presents so little difficulty that it can be done by 
workers without previous experience, provided they exert care in 
a few essential particulars. 

Some e35)erimental work in the Indian Service in rammed 
earth was begun in the sianmer of 1936, when a poultry house was 
built by Sioux Indians at the Pine Ridge Reservation, South Dakota 
under the supervision of a student from the State College of Agri- 
culture at Brookings, South Dakota. The walls were only 12 inches 
thick, but after completion it was found that this building was 
the warmest and dryest of any at the Oglala Indian Community High 
School. There was twenty degrees' difference between the tempera- 
ture of the inside ajid outside walls: a challenge to builders in 
a region where the thermometer registers from 108 degrees in sum- 
mer to '30 below zero in winter. 

A rammed earth dwelling was built at the Turtle Mountain 
Reservation, North Dakota, in 1936, and another at Pine Ridge last 
summer. Further experiments with this and other types of buildings 
are being undertaken on Pine Ridge. Any widespread use of rammed 
earth, however, must wait for careful evaliiation of the present 
experiments. 

Pise de terre construction is so little known, perhaps, 
because no one stands to profit from its use. Unlike other build- 
ing materials, there is no one to advertise it; no one, except the 
man iriao uses it, to reap rewards from its e^loitation. 



16 



Rammed earth can te used for houses, barns, poultry- 
houses, schools; in fact for every type of building that is -oro- 
tected from standing water. Its use is simple; accordin,?; to Dr. 
H. B. HiJmphrey of the Department of Agriculture, anyone able to 
follow a blue-print and simple instructions should have no dif- 
ficulty in erecting a rammed-earth biiilding. 




Raunmed Earth House. Gardendale Tract, Birmingham, Alabama. 
(Resettlement Administration Photograph.) 

It shoxild be understood from the outset, however, that 
success depends upon the care with which materials are selected 
and Used. The first essential is selecting the right kind of soil 
having the correct amount of moisture; the second is thoroughly 
compacting the earth. There are others also, but these two are 
the most important and tinless rigidly observed the finished prod- 
uct will no t be sound. 

TThile all earths are not suitable, most of them may be 
made so hy proper mixture. Pure sand is not suitahle at all, as 
it will not bind. Nor will pure clay do, as it shrinks too much. 
One author recommends a mixture of two parts clay, three parts 
sand, and one part coarse agpregate. All authors agree that all 



17 



organic ma.tter should be eliminated; therefore if soil dxig from 
the cellar is used, the top soil should he senarated out and, for 
this purpose, discarded. The most satisfactory moisture content 
is between seven and fourteen ner cent of the weight of the mix- 
ture. 

A carefully-drawn plan is a first essential, with every 
opening located and provided for: windows, doors, conduits for 
pipes and electric wires, with the conduits close to the inner sur- 
face of the walls for accessibility, since after the walls are 
finished it is extremely difficult to make changes. 

Since -pise de terre walls must not be placed on the 
ground, a stone or concrete foundation reaching down below frost 
line and extending at least a foot above ground is required. On 
top of this there should be a damp-proof course to prevent mois- 
ture from rising by capillary attraction into the rainmed earth. 

The only tools and equipment required are tiie rammers 
and the lumber for forms. These are sinple and can be made by 
anyone handy with ordinary tools. The general reouirements of a 
form are that it should be very rigid and not liable to warping. 
It should be adjustable to various thicknesses of walls, and great 
care should be exercised to make sure that the form is straight 
and true and that the inside surface is planed and smooth. 

For a two-story rammed earth building, the walls shoxid 
be from 22 to 27 inches thick. The earth is shoveled into the 
forms in layers six inches deep and sioread evenly; then it is care- 
fully and thorou£:hly tamped with wooden blocks shod with iron, 
weighing about 15 pounds. 'Vhen it has been sufficiently beaten it 
will ring like concrete. Another layer of earth is added and 
tamped; the -Drocess is repeated Tintil the form is full and the 
dirt level with the top. The process is not as slow as might be 
thought; as an example, two inexoerienced men built a six-room 
house in less than a month. 

Once properly rammed, the walls are so solid that they 
will supTDort from ten to thirty tons per souare foot. 

An interesting example of rammed earth constrtiction is 
the house erected for his own family by Dr. H. B. Humnhrey near 
Cabin John, Maryland, in 1921. It is of simple Dutch Colonial de- 
sign, built vtDoii. a foundation of concrete blocks, and with a sec- 
ond story finished with frame. The outer walls from foundation to 
the sills of the upstairs windows are of rammed earth obtained 
from the cellar excavation. !Ihey are 18 inches thick without re- 
inforcement,. The house is 48 by 32 feet, wi th a tiled roof weigh- 
ing 18 tons. 

18 



Proof of rammed earth's d-uraMlity is Hilltop Manor, 
standing in the Northeast section of Washington, D. C. at 1300 
Rhode Island Avenue. Built in 1773 "by slave lahor, it has with- 
stood more than a century and a half of use. A house-wrecker en- 
gaged to tear it down some years ago grew discouraged after re- 
peated efforts and canceled his contract, advising instead restor- 
ation of the old 27-inch walls. Suhsequently an ell was added of 
different material, furnishing an interesting basis for comparison, 
and showing that the rammed earth walls possessed un'osual insulat- 
ing qualities against heat and cold. 

There are also well-known rammed earth buildings at Hill- 
crest Plantation near Sumter, South Carolina, erected ty W. W. 
Anderson in 1818. This groi:?) consists of ten plantation buildings 
and a large church. Ihese structTores, besides standing the ordi- 
nary ravages of time, have stood through the Charleston earthquake 
(Au^gust 21, 18 86) , a three-ds^r hurricane (1895), and a cyclone 
(February 16, 1903). 

The Resettlement Administration has recently built a 
grotro of rammed earth houses, each with a barn and pienp house, in 
Alabama, at the Gardendale Tract, near Birmingham. 

A six-room cottage built on a concrete foundation and 
without a cellaT was erected at Gardendale for $2,250, including 
wiring, plumbing and fixtures. After building these experimental 
houses, Thomas Hibben, consulting engineer, took his crew of work- 
ers and in one week's time put V[p in the State Fair Grounds at 
Birmingham a complete six-room cottage. As to cost: this typical 
six-room house, costing $2,250 was bvdlt principally by relief 
workers. $850 was for materials and $1400 for labor. The job 
took 700 man-hours of skilled labor and 1,800 hours of unskilled 
labor. Ihis house had three bedrooms each 12' by 12'; a bathroom 
6' by 8'; hallway 6' by 12 ' ; living room 12' by 23'; front porch 
9' hy 25'; kitchen 12' by 12'; and rear porch 9' by 15'-. 

In conclusion, too much stress cannot be placed on care 
in doing the work. Carelessly done, the method will fail; proper- 
ly built, a rammed earth house will stand for centuries and pay 
generous dividends in comfort and low cost of upkeep. 



TSALAPAI GA.TTLE SALES. TRUXTON 'GA.NDN AGENCY . ARIZONA. 



From the Walapai Reservation during 1937, 450 cattle, 
bringing $15,404,34 were sold from the I. D. herd and 1,594 cattle, 
bringing $48,232.31 were sold hy individual Indians. 



19 



MAPPING PBQGBAM IN PITO CIVILIZED TRIBES AEEA 



The inadeqiiacy of existing maps has been a continuing 
handicap to the Indian Service program in the Five Civilized 
Tribes area in eastern Oklahoma. No one know^ and no records 
show completely, exactly what land is Indian-owned. This sitiia- 
tion is finally being remedied . 

In line with the present program of economic rehabilita- 
tion in Oklahoma and anticipated developments under the Oklahoma 
Indian Welfare Act, the Indian Service has started a campaign of 
assaying Indian land assets in the Five Civilized Tribes area and 
mapping them in relation to the state as a whole. 

The task is one of real magnitude: the total area con- 
sists of 925 townships, involving 44 counties; and the total acre- 
age is 312,000, or 33,000 square miles. 

The survey will take advanta^ of all existing data 
compiled by the U. S. Geological Survey, the General Land Office, 
state workers and by recent WPA projects. There are many gaps 
in the data and inaccioracies have grown xrp through the years which 
no one group has found the time to correct. 

Land mapiDed will be grouped under the following class- 
ifications: 

Tribal land 

Restricted Indian land which is non-taxable 

Restricted taxable Indian land 

Sulmarginal land purchases for Indians 

Indian-owned lands sold to non-Indians 

State-owned lands 

Non-Indian-owned and Indian-owned fee patented lands 

U. S. National Forests 

State and U. S. reserves other than National Forests 

(game reruges, national or state parks and so forth). 

In addition to the ownership classifications, the maps 
will show highways, railroads, drainage systems, towns, locations 
of government schools, hospitals and field clerks' headquarters, 
county lines, township and range lines, latitude and longitude 
lines and locations of Indian population groups. 



20 



The value of completing these land status maps to ad- 
ministrative work in the Five Trites area is obvious. More in- 
telligent planning of road work, CCC work, land acquisition, soil 
conservation work and of integration of Indian Service activities 
with state programs will be made possible. 

It is estimated that six Indian assistants and two 
draftsmen can complete the work in nine months. 



IRRIGATION HELPS GARDENS AT KYLE . SOUTH DAKDTA. 



For twenty years, writes Frank Short Horn of Kiyle, on the 
Pine Ridge Reservation in South Dakota, gardens have been planted 
at Kyle with partial or complete crop failures due to lack of rain- 
fall. This past year, the farm agent, Douglas D. Murdock, began 
talking irrigated gardens to the Indians, and community organiza- 
tion for garden development. According to Frank Short Horn, the 
Indians listened first with skepticism, then with interest, as the 
farm agent talked and drew diagrams showing the new technique. Nine 
small groups were organized in this district of over five hundred 
Indian families - the Thunder Bull Community, Three Mile Creek, 
American Horse Creek, No Flesh, Kyle, Potato Creek, Medicine Root, 
White River and St. Cecilia. The nine community gardens became a 
reality and last summer and fall saw a harvest in spite of grass- 
hoppers and other pests. 

To quote Frank Short Horn: "To see the streams of wa- 
ter running down the rows of thirsty plants - that is a fine thing. 
This strange thing irrigation makes plants grow when no rains come 
and the hot wind blows. Many cans of peas, beans, beets and corn 
have been put "op for the winter; corn was dried; and beans and 
cucumbers were salted down and put in barrels for the school chil- 
dren ajjd for the families. Food for the winter is in our cellars. 
Our boys and girls are learning how to run the water down to the 
plants. The tomato worms, blister, beetles, grasshoppers, potato 
beetles and sand fleas still come, but at leas't we know that the 
lack of rain will not wipe us out." 



COTTON AND CORN OFFER EROSION HAZARD ID SOIL 



Land planted to corn and cotton tends to erode more than 
one hundred times as fast as land planted to grass and o-ther cover 
crops, according to experiments now being carried on by the Soil 
Conservation Service. 

21 



ANCIENT RB CORDS ON SIDNB 




Petrogljrphs On The r^alls Of Dinwoodie Canyon, Wind River 

Indian Reservation, Tli^oming. 

(photograph tuf Denier.) 




Grot?) In Dry Ibrk Canyon Near Vernal, Utah. 
(Photograph By Frank Beckwith, Sr., Delta, Utah) 



22 



ANCIEUT H300HDS ON STONE 
I^r J-ulian E. Steward, Bureau of American Ethnology 

Ihe rock paintings and carvings - petroglyphs - which are found on 
rocks in all parts of the United States have pio'ied the interest of scien- 
tists, amateur scientists and passers-Tiy ever since the coming of the ^ite 
man to this country. A variety of fahuLous theories as to their origin have 
been offered: that they prove that Egyptians, Scythians, Chinese and the 
Lost Ten Trites of Israel invaded America in ancient days; that they are in- 
dications of Aztec wanderings; that they are markers for huried treasure; 
records of vanished races; symbols of diabolical cults. A single T)etroglyoh, 
that on Dighton Rock on Narragansett Bay, Massachusetts, has inspired nearly 
six hundred books and articles over a period of three hundred years. 

What, as a matter of fact, in the light of scientific investigation, 
rather than speculation, is actually known about these petroglyphs? Who made 
them? 

Petroglyphs occur in all parts of the United States - as they occur 
also on all continents - as records of primitive men. American petroglyphs 
are extraordinarily varied: some are complex in design and strikingly vivid 
in execution; others are crude, faint and confused in form. It is this very 
diversity which has made it possible to read into them the astonishing vari- 
ety of meanings which have been accorded to them. 

Petroglyphs are most numerous west of the Rocky Mountains, vrfiere 
the large number of smooth rock faces provided by caves, cliffs and boulders 
have afforded op-oortunities for this art and where the semi -arid climate has 
preserved them from destruction by the elements. There is scarcely a moun- 
tain-side, canyon, or other place freouented by primitive man where some trace 
of them may not be foTind. Perhaps the greatest number occur in the Great 
Basin area of Western California., Nevada and Utah. 

PetroglrjTphs : Prehistoric " Doodling ", or Significant Symbols ? 

Waat motivated the makers of which bravely holds that petroglyphs 

petroglyphs? Probably a variety of are mere random fancies created in 

motives, just as the drawings on leisurely moments; and the serious 

skin, bone, wood and other materi- purpose school which weightily pro- 

als, were made for differing reasons. claims that all petroglyphs have deet) 

Learned orjinion has tended to divide historical or symbolical meaning, 
into opposing schools of interpreta- 
tion: the idle markings school, In favor of the first theory is 



23 




Hinnan Figure 
(Virginia) 




Mo im tain Sheep 

(Near Conner Lake, 

Eastern Oalif.) 



m- 



Bison (Colorado Riv- 
er, at mouth of the 
Ft enont River, Utah.) 



TSffl 



Antelope or Moun- 
tain Goat? (Near 
Kayenta, Ariz.) 



the "undisputed fact that wince the 
coming of the white man, Indians 
have made hvindreds of petroglyphs 
of men, horses, railroad trains, 
houses, hosts and other things of 
civilization. And, in view of the 
great trouhle which vtii te men fre- 
quently take to deface rocks and 
trees with names and initials, es- 
pecially where other persons have 
done so before them, it would be 
foolish to suptjose that the motives 
of prehistoric Indians were not 
sometimes equally trivial. It is a 



safe guess that a large number of 
petroglyphs were produced by persons 
amusing themselves during dull hours. 

Many pre-Columbian petroglyphs, 
however, must have been made for 
some definite and important reason, 
else the designs of each area should, 
not conform in such large degree to 
a prevailing style and they would 
not have been worth the immense labor 
often required to make them. Many 
are undoubtedly composite in origin, 
with newer designs suoerimposed upon 
the old. 



Many E9.d Religious Purpose 



Many tnough by no means all 
petroglyphs were made for religious 
purposes. Primitive peoples be- 
lieve the world to be filled with 
supernatiiral forces which must be 
s\jpplicated, placated, or taken in- 
to account in some other way at ev- 
ery turn. These forces and spirits 
are often made more objective 
through -oictures and symbols. A 
god may be more successfully stippli- 
cated if his likeness is present. 
A supernatural guardian spirit, 
which has apt)eared in a dream to 
some person to offer its aid, will 
seem more real if one has a tangible 
symbol of its presence. Ceremonies 
and rites are more satisfying if 



there is visible evidence of the su- 
pernatural forces with which it is 
concerned. People, therefore, make 
wooden and clay images, altars, .altar 
paraphernalia, sacred dress, insig- 
nia and regalia, and, not infrequent- 
ly, pictorial and symbolical repre- 
sentations on stone. 

In a fortunate few instances the 
religious meaning of petroglyphs is 
remembered by modern tribes. Some of 
these were made in connection with 
puberty rites which were important 
ceremonies to most North American 
tribes, for through them youths were 
inducted into the stg.tus of adult- 
hood. 



24 



Arotmd the cliffs and mesas of 
the Hopi Indian villages in Arizona 
there are many familiar designs, 
such as rain-cloud symbols, clan 
marks and others made in the dis- 
tinctive Hopi art style. In the 
Great Lakes region there are occa- 
sional tird and animal designs, 
which were probably clan totems and 
other realistic and conventionalized 
figures which may have been pic to- 
graphic records of religious beliefs, 
similar to those made on birch bark. 
Throughout the Colorado River drain- 
age of Utah, there are hundreds of 
extraordinarily elaborate anthropo- 
morphic figures, made perhaps a 
thousand years ago, which seemingly 



portray either masked dancers or de- 
ities. It is also possible that 
some of the animal pictures and hxmt- 
ing scenes found in various places 
were part of magic for increasing the 
species which were important for food 
or for hunting luck, though not a 
shred of evidence can be offered in 
any particular Instance to prove it. 

Many other petroglyphs, though 
serious in intent, were nonreligious. 
There are, for example, many geomet- 
ric designs in the Southwest which 
are clearly taken from textile or 
pottery decoration. Some petroglyphs 
seem to have been trail markers or 
records of visits. 



Petroglyphs As Art 



In some localities, petroglyphs 
provide the only known examples of 
primitive art. In considering them 
as such, however, the difficulty of 
the xock medium and the fact that 
the artistic motive was probably 
secondary to some other purpose 
should be borne in mind. 

It is noteworthy that practical- 
ly all of the recognizable pictures 
are of men, mammals, reptiles, birds 
and insects.. There are very few 
fish, and virtually no plants. 



The artistic merits of the real- 
istic and semi-realistic pictures are 
extremely variable. Human or anthro- 
phomorphic beings, for examole, vary 
from the extremely complex, somewhat 
conventionalized, and carefully ex- 
ecuted masked men or god images of 
eastern Utah (see illustration on 
page26), to crude linear figures pro- 
duced with a faltering hand and no 
real effort at realism, in the Great 
Basin and elsewhere. 

The finest single example of 





h^ 



Petroglyphs Representing mythical Or Ima^2:inary Beings. 

Left - Clear Creek, Utah; Center - IJae Dalles, Columbia River; 

Righ t - New Me xico . 



25 



petroglyph art is an elaborate and 
very elegant group of human beings 
near Vernal, in northeastern Utah, 
placed high on a sandstone cliff 
(see illustration on page 27). 

Animals, too, are extremely 
variable in realism and accuracy. 
Some are fair likenesses of various 
species; others are so crude or so 
greatly conventionalized that it is 
possible only to know that they are 
quadrt^jeds. Quadrupeds are, in 
fact, generally identifiable only 
when they possess some salient and 
unmistakable charq.cteristic, sTich 
as the long, curved horns of the 
mountain sheep, the branching ant- 
lers of the deer or elk, or the 
large head and short horns of the 
bison. In some areas imreal and 
Drobably mythical creatures, iriaose 




!Ihe i'lctures In Barrier 
Canyon, Utah Are Painted 
With Red And Brown. 
(Photo Through Courtesy Of 
Dave Rust, Provo, Utah) 



likeness is unknown in the world of 
rtature, defy identification. There 
are the ameba-like sketches and many- 
legged creatures of the southern San 
Joaquin Valley of California, the 
club-handed £ind other grotesque men 
of the Great Basin, certain ghostlike 
figures from the Colxanbia Valley and 
many composite creatures from all 
areas. 

Now and then it is claimed that 
some petroglyph represents a now ex- 
tinct species of animal. When it is 
asserted, as in Arizona a few years 
ago, that the pictures are dinosaursj 
it is sheer nonsense, for the great 
reptiles were extinct long before 
man had begun to evolve anywhere on 
the face of the earth. When, how- 
ever, the petroglyphs are thought to 
be of the giant bison, mammoth, 
ground sloth, camel or others of the 
great Pleistocene mammals which are 
now known to have s^urvived after 
man's advent to the New World, the 
claim should be examined with care, 
for it is entirely possible that hu- 
man beings did depict these now ex- 
tinct species. All such thoughts 
should take into consideration, how- 
ever, the possibility of mistaken in- 
terpretations of unskilled drawings, 
the motives behind which are not 
known . 



Antiquity of Petroglyphs 

There are several means by which 
the general a^e of petroglyphs may 
occasionally be ascertained. Geology 
has sometimes provided important 
clues. Jbr example, at the Salton 
Sea, in southern California, a few 
simple, linear petroglyphs occur -un- 
der layers of travertine, a deposit 
left on the ancient shore line by the 
waves of the sea, vdaich was m^uch 



26 



higher than it is today and filled 

m-uch of the Inperial Valley. These 
petroglyphs must, therefore, be as 
old as this intmdation, which geol- 
ogists "believe to have occurred be- 
tween 300 and 1,000 years ago. 
Other petroglyphs on the travertine 
must, on the other hand, be more 
recent than the inundation. 

Near G-ra^pevine Canyon, Nevada, 
there are many complex rectilinear 
figures on rock surfaces, part of 
which are now covered by a gravel 
terrace. The gravel is a stream de- 
posit which, geologists state, was 



built up several hundred years a^, 
possible longer. Some figures are 
covered with desert varnish, a pecul- 
iar oxidation that slowly coats cer- 
tain rocks, and is, therefore, evi- 
dence of considerable antiquity. 

When geologic aspects of this 
problem have been farther exploited, 
we may expect additional light on the 
problem of antiquity. Geologic es- 
timates of age are always broad, how- 
ever, and can seldom fix dates with 
the precision required to relate pet- 
roglyohs to other tyoes of archaeolog- 
ical remains having known antiquity. 



NOTE: This article is condensed from a recent Smithsonian Insti- 
tution pamphlet: "Petroglyphs of the United States", Publication No. 3437 
of the Smithsonian Institution, U. S. Government Printing Office , Washington, 
1937. The bulletin is by Dr. Julian H. Steward. 




Hunting Scene Near Kanab, Utah. The Representation 

Of The Bow And Arrows Shows That It Was Made 1^ 

Pueblo Or Later Indians, ibr The Bow Was Unknown 

In Early Basket Maker Times. The Angular Geometric 

Figures Are In Pueblo Style. 

(Photograph By Dr. Julian H. Steward.) 



27 



TULABOS^ CANYON 

By Erik W. Allstrom, 

Camp St^jerintendent, CCC - ID, Phoenix, Arizona 



Tularosa Canyon - a 'beau.tifuL name; and a place that for 
ages has waited the magic touch of a conjuror. 

Now comes the Indian Division of the CCC, the ma^jician to 
transform the long, swampy valley into rich acres of Apache farm- 
home land. 

Ihe steep slopes of the canyon are covered with a fine 
growth of Ponderosa Pine timher. Mature trees are being cut and 
marketed only to keep pace with normal growth, so there will be a 
perpetual supply. This beautiful growth of timber holds the rain- 
fall so that the run-off is very gradual and all along the lower 
slopes of the canyon are living springs of clear, p\ire water feed- 
ing into the never-ceasing flow of Tularosa Creek. The cent\rries 
have filled the canyon bed with a rich silt that has never grown 
more than bulrushes and horse-tail. 

5bur miles up the canyon from Mescalero there has grown 
up the first complete portable frame camp in the Southwest Indian 
country. 




General View Of The Head Springs Canp In Tularosa Canyon, 
Mescalero Agency, New Mexico 

28 



Heretofore the Indian CCC has lived in tents which soon 
leaked, hlew open or ripped in the wind, and which all too frequent- 
ly caught fire and burned, along with the clothes and bedding of 
the occupants. In the new camp the units are sixteen ly sixteen 
feet square. Iloors are of two equal sections, walls are seven Ty 
sixteen and each side of the peak roof is in two sections. Windows 
and doors are of glass for the winter and of wire screen for the 
summer. The entire building is strongly held together by fourteen 
half -inch bolts. 

There are nine such cabins for the enrollees, each cabin 
housing six men. One is reserved for a manual arts and crafts shop. 
Die cook and his helpers have a cabin and in another the foreman 
has his office and living quarters. Three cabins, with inside par- 
titions removed, make a combined kitchen and dining room, fitted 
with tables and benches built and nicely decorated by the boys them- 
selves in their spare time. 




From Left lb Ri^t: First Of The Enroll ee Cabins j Combined Kitchen And 
Dining Hoom; And Cabin For Cook And Helpers. 



About twenty years ago IMited States troops from Fart 
Bliss spent several months on the Mescalero Reservation at a prac- 
tice camp. A well-built log cabin about 24 by 48 feet was built 
at that time by the Army. This has been set aside as a recreational 
hall. There Indians gather to play quiet games, listen to the radio 
or read the sometimes current, but always acceptable magazines. Soon 
they will have the beginnings of a libraly, toward the founding of 
which seventy volumes have been secured by gift from the Albuquerque 
schools. Efforts are being made to secure a motion picture projec- 
tor to be used for visual education as well as for entertainment. 

29 




A Section Of The New lUlaxosa Canyon Truck Trail Showing A 
Caterpillar Bulldozer, Two Jackhammer Drills And An Air- 
Compressor, All Operated "By Apache CCC - ID Enroll ees. 



A good truck trail is now in process of construction 
along the side of the twenty-five mile long canyon. Itaen finished 
it will provide a short road to Cloudcroft, the El Paso playground 
area, as well as a auick way of reaching forest fires ^ich all too 
often have ravaged these mountains. 

The trail is heing made hy Indians, for Indians to iise. 
Only the foreman is white. Apaches drive trucks and tractors, 
operate caterpillars and road graders, compressors and jackhammer 
drills, handle dyTiamite and hlast. 

^en the trail is done, these same hoys will hegin the 
program of drainage that soon will transform this agenold swamp 
into fertile acres around Apache homes. 



Cover ; The cover photograph, which shows some of the San 
Carlos cattle herd, San Carlos, Arizona, is ly Erik W. Allstrom, 
Camp Superintendent, CCO-ID. 



30 



Tvro VIEWS q^ ^rk at ccc-id dam iro . 179 . 

STO NEMAN . STANDING HQCK AGENCY . MPRTH DAKOTA 





31 



MARKETING COOPEBA.TIVES K)R INDIANS 
"By Edward Huberman 
Ttexfbook Writer And CurricuLian Research Worker, Indian Service 




Here's an Indian farmer with a small acreage tiiat he 
works himself. Each year he buys seed, repairs his equipment, 
does his plowing, sowing, cioltivating, harvesting. He has a few 
beef cattle and one or two dairy cows. On a small scale he raises 
chickens and hogs. 

Down the road a way lives another Indian farmer wi-th the 
same kind of situation. Nearby there are a dozen others, perhaps 
more. 

In order to make a living these men have to sell their 
farm products for enough money to pay the cost of raising those 
products, plus a little extra. This "little extra" is the money 
each farmer will have for meeting the food and clothing needs of 
his family, or for any other expenses that may come vep. Of course, 
every farmer tries to make that "little extra" bigger. The bigger 
it becomes, the more comfort and security he and his family can 
enjoy. 

Many farmers in many communities have learned about two 
important ways of Increasing their real incomes. When farmers get 



32 



together, pool their purchases and "buy their supplies cooperatively, 
they can usually obtain for themselves more goods of higher quality 
at lower cost. At the other end of the scale, farmers can raise 
their real incomes ly selling their products on a cooperative basis. 
A "marketing co-op" is the way to do this. 

In different parts of the United States groups of neighbors, 
some of them very much like our dozen Indian farmers, have organized 
marketing co-ops. There were about 11,000 of these organizations 
all over the country in 1937. They had more than 3-4 million mem- 
bers. And in some communities the farmers were so cooperative- 
minded that th^ belonged to three or four co-ops at once! 

Marketing co-ops sell cattle, sheep, pigs, chickens, eggs, 
milk, fruit, vegetables, grain, cotton and other farm products for 
their members. 

"Selling", though a small word, is a big job, and often 
means much more than taking something off the farm, putting it into 
the eager hands of a waiting buyer and pocketing the money. A good 
job of selling farm products means that the farmer will get the 
best possible price for his goods. 

lb do this good job of selling, a marketing co-op, made 
■ap of Bi groxsp of farmers who pool their farm products and sell in 
quantity lots, might have to put a product i:?) in a special package, 
or grade it, or store it for a while, or ship it in carloads. Any 
or all of these methods, properly used, help to raise the farmer's 
income . 

It costs money to sell farm products. If farmers can cut 
down on this cost and still do just as good a selling job, it will 
mean more money in their pockets. If city customers want their 
butter packaged a certain wgQTi or eggs graded according to govern- 
ment standards, a marketing co-op is in a much better position to 
take care of these needs than an individual farmer working by himself. 

If it seems best to put a certain number of eggs in cold 
storage until they can be sold at a good price, a marketing co-op 
can handle this job better than one lone farmer. Besides, the co- 
op would be likely to know just when to hold any special product, 
and when to sell, because the co-op manager makes it- his business 
to study the markets carefully and then inform the members about 
these things. 

As soon as co-op members learn how much they can save by 
shiptiing their goods in carload lots to big-city markets, they will 
organize themselves to do business in just this way. 

33 



COOPERATIVE SHARE OF DENMARK'S AGRICULTURE 

BLACK FIGURES-HANDLED BY CO-OPS 

EACH HCURE 10% OF TOTAL BUSINESS 



POULTRY 



SEED 



BUTTER 




^ ^ ^ f^ ^ 

iiiii 

£II££I£ 

^V^f ^wflm ^w ^W ^f ^u 



PACKING 
PLANTS 



PICS 




COWS 



Many co^ps ' 
have found it possible, 
after they gained ex- 
perience in the busi- 
ness, to set up agen- 
cies in distant cities 
where the hest markets 
are, or to make arrange- 
ments for some agent 
already there to handle 
the co-op shipments. 

Farmers who 
helong to co-^ps can 
see all these advan- 
tages and many others. 
They know that as farm- 
ers their main business 
is farming . They can- 
no t spend all the time 
it woiild take, especial- 
ly in busy seasons, to 
learn how to become spe- 
cialists in selling . But 
their co-op can and does 
take time, for the bene- 
fit of all the members. 

The co-op 
watches the markets and 
ducts - what shape, what 



finds out how consumers want their farm pro 
size, what grade, what season of the year. 

The farmer who raises only small qtiantities can't pos- 
sibly cater to all the demands of the best-paying city market. It 
vrould take more time and trouble than it was worth. But his co- 
op, by pooling his products with those of all his fellow members 
can meet the market demands and get a better price for all the co- 
operators. And savings made by the co^p go right back to the 
farmer -members. 

"Sell the best product in the best way on the best market 
at the best time, so that the co-op member may get the best price." 
Ihat, in short, is the purpose of a marketing cooperative. 



34 



THE PAPAGO INDIAN PAIR 



Text ty Claude C. Cornwall, Camp Sispervisor, CCC - ID; Photo^aph 
lay Erik W. Allstrom, Camp Svqpervisor, CCC - ID 




The photograph above shows a part of the exhibit which 
filled foTir school rooms at the second annxial Papago fair recently 
held at Sells, Arizona. There were sqioash weighing 68 potrnds, kaf- 
fir corn 14 feet in height and Indian com with l2-foot stalks bear- 
ing mul-ti -colored ears (the Papagos regard with special pride com 
with two or more colors to the ear). There was Sudan grass ten feet 
high, more than a dozen different kinds of legumes, melons, pianpkins, 
chile, pepoers. All of these were grown with flash flood irriga- 
tion. Prom the irrigated areas in Sah Xavier came tobacco five 
feet tall, good quality Irish potatoes and practically every vari- 
ety of garden vegetable grown in the Southwest. 

Pine example of Papago baskets were included in the hand- 
work exhibit at the fair. A smoothly-run rodeo was one feature; 
also a grand barbecue served on the Agency campus at Sells. 

Ihis fair was the second held, by the Papago Indians. 
Spectators commented on the increased attractiveness of the displays, 
and the improvement in the general management of the event. 



35 



CCC - ID TRAINING LEADS TO JOB AS MSCHAKIC 
IDR AIR TRANSPORTATION OOMPANY 



3259 West 65th Street, 
Chicago, Illinois. 



Mr. Fred Anderson, 
Project Manager, CCC - ID, 
Standing Rock, North Dakota. 

Dear Mr. Anderson: 

I am working for the American Air Lines as a mechanic in the 
overhaul department. Ihej employ ahout 900 men the year around 
and have about 80 twin motor passenger ships. and I don't know how 
many small ships. 

At the present time I am getting $87.00 per month. If I stay 
on I get a raise every six months, and after 18 months I will have 
to take an ejtamination; then I get in to the $.75 per hour class. 

What experience I got working at the garage has sure helped 
me in getting this jo"b. 

Regards to everyone in there, I am, 

Thomas Short. 

« « • • » * ♦ 



ENROLLEE 1RAINING PROGRAM AT RED LAKE 



CCC - ID enrollees at Red Lake, Minnesota, learn in their 
spare time such varied technioues as the basic principles of forest- 
ry practice, how to use hand tools, the principles of machine oper- 
ation, economical and practical cookery, carpentry, map making and 
drafting, first-aid and safety training, and basket ball. 

Attendance is voluntary. Instruction, most of which is 
informal, is carried on by CCC and Agency personnel. 



36 



N0TE5 FR.OM WEtKLY PR0GKE53 REPORTS OF 
CIVILIAN CONSERVATION C0RP5 ~ INDIAN DIVISION 



Pine Beetle Control At Warm 
Springs , Oregon . Our Pine Beetle 
treating crews have brought the 
grand total of trees treated to 
2,562, over an acreage of 16,580 
acres. We have heen warking the 
area near camp and the weather 
has no t been so bad as to hinder 
the work. 

Fire hazard work was done 
this month in the cutting and dis- 
posing of snags. Three miles of 
this work was done along the side 
of the trail. 

We had two heavy rain storms 
during the month and this kept a 
small crew with a dump truck busy 
hauling gravel for the deepest 
ruts and mud holes. They also 
drained water holes in the road 
and kept the drain ditches open. 
Ter ranee Courtney , Leader . 

Ir-uck Trail Construction At 
Seminole , Florida . Ihe crew worked 
two days building a trail 12 feet 
in width from liie inner reservation 
gate towards the main gate going 
east. In two days the crew of 8 
men worked hard and put up approx- 
imately 320 feet of trail with 
ditches on the side that will con- 
nect with an old ditch that drains 
the headquarters to a natural swamp 
drain leading to the south. 

Bie stretch of trail mentioned 
above makes it possible to travel 
one of the worst pieces of slick 
marl flat, the entire trip from Im- 
mokalee to tiie reservation. W. 
Stanley Hanson , Mechanic . 



Truck Trail Maintenance At 



Bjopa Valley , California . The crew 
working on the tr'uck trail mainten- 
ance project has completed work on 
the Dowd and Tulley Creek Trails. 
The Mail Truck Trail was put in 
shape at the Pine Creek Bridge and 
made passable. It was decided ta 
let the large slide at the Bridge 
settle before removing any more dirt. 
Tbe crew and bulldozer have moved to 
the Weitchpec Bridge project and are 
building the approach on the west 
side of the Foot Bridge which will 
be reinforced and made into a ve- 
hicle bridge. Patrick I_. Rogers . 

Fencing Erosion Projects At 
Pima , Arizona . All work projects 
are progressing nicely. The weather 
has remained fine, although we 
could use some rain. 

A fencing crew was started on 
the work of fencing the Bla.ckwater 
Erosion Control areas No. 25 and 
26. Altogether, this now makes a 
total of 25 men working in the 
Blackwater District. 

Telephone line construction is 
now moving rapidly with about 20 men 
at work setting poles and stringing 
wire. Clyde H. Packer , Project 
Manager . 

Trail Work " At Cho c taw-Ohi ckasaw 
Sanatorium , Oklahoma . Work on truck 
trail maintenance, reservation trails, 
has continued with very good prog- 
ress during the week. These trails 
are now in very good condition, how- 
ever, it will be necessary that addi- 
tional maintenance work and grading 



37 



SMFTHSONIAN INSTtTUTION LIBRARIES 




3 9088 01625 0383 



"be done from time to time. It 
is planned to grade these trails 
in the near future. These trails 
are very important from a fire 
fighting point of view and it is 
4 desirable that they he kept in good 
j condition. Dr. W. E. Van Cleave , 
Superintendent . 

First-Aid Class At Paiute, 
Utah. Last week a representatrv-e 
of the American Red Cross, con- 
ducted a first-aid school at the 
Shivwits Osmmunity Center. The 
leaders, assistant leaders, truck 
drivers and all enroll ees who had 
finished fifth grade in school, 
took the course. 

This was the first Indian 
class for the instructor. The en- 
tire group was commended on the way 
in which they adapted themselves to 
the work and on the interest which 
was manifest. Oj B. Fry . 

Sawing Wood For Spike Camp At 
^r t Belknap , Montana . Thi s week 
there was an average of five enroll- 
ees sav/ing wood for the Soike C3xnp 
for next spring. It was intended 
to work these enrollees in Browns 
Canyon hut due to trail conditions 
and the truck being busy hauling 
lumber for the garage i t was deemed 
necessary to use them close by. 
After the First we plan on drilling 
and blasting rock in Browns Canyon 
to repair the trail that was washed 
out last summer by the flood, ffill - 
iam Cross . 

Fence Construction At Mission , 
California . Work started on fence 
construction along the east bound- 
ary. A fire break is being cut a- 
long the line in preparation to 



long tile line in preparation to 
bTiilding the fence and the work of 
construction of the fence will con- 
tinue until it is completed. !Diis 
will now keep the cattle on the res- 
ervation and is needed improvement 
which was asked for by the committee. 

Dance At Pipestone . Minnesota. 
Last fall a community hall was e- 
rected on the reservation under a 
Wk project and on Thinrsday evening 
a comrnxmity dance took place. A 
grov?) of 75 people attended the dance 
and all participated in the old time 
square dances and the latest fox 
trots. Later in the evening a ntm- 
ber of Sioux Indian dances were en- 
joyed. Dae older people took part 
in the Omaha, the Rabbit Dance, the 
Harvest Dance and the Stomp Dance. 
George R. Brown . Sub-lbreman . 

Soil Conservation At WinneJ3ago , 
Nebraska . The channel cleaning and 
straightening project has progressed 
very well. Besides protecting the 
community building grounds, this 
project will greatly benefit the ap- 
pearance of the grounds. Approxi- 
mately 1500 cubic yards of earth have 
been moved on this project to date. 

Two small log check dams were 
completed this week and a fence was 
built to protect a small springy 
area. Clinton E. Stahly , Ibreman . 

Fencing At Mescalero . New Mex - 
ico . We have res^uraed the pasture 
fence work with a crew of 10 men for 
a start. Despite, the threatening 
weather the crew went about the work 
as usual and are daing well with it. 
"Truckers" are busy hauling and 
stringing posts along the line of 
work. J. A. Montoya . 



38